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Smart Songdo Song  Incheon FEZ, Südkorea 2014
 
Auf privatisiertem Land erbaut, von einem einzigen Unternehmen verwaltet, von
multinationalen Investoren finanziert: Städte werden zu handelbaren Produkten, die den
Prämissen der Märkte unterliegen.

Dennoch finden die Menschen elegante Wege im Umgang mit diesen harten Realitäten.

In New Songdo City, einer südkoreanischen Sonderwirtschaftszone, reflektieren wir diese
Entwicklung entlang einer bewährten Hardrock Melodie.


사유지에 건물을 짓고, 단일 기업이 운영하며, 다국적 투자자들로부터 자금을 확보한다 :
도시들은 점점 시장에 나온 상품이 되어가고 물건처럼 거래되고 있다.

그래도 개인들은 이러한 구체적 현실(혹은 부동산 경기)에 대응할 수 있는 현명한 방안들을
찾아낸다. 우리는 한국의 경제자유구역 중 하나인 송도 신도시에서 안정된 하드록 멜로디를
노래함으로써 이러한 개발 상황에 대해 고찰해 본다.

Smart Songdo Song, Video 5'30'
비디오 속에서
상상은 이미 현실이 되었지
HD 화면 속 초고층 빌딩 유리에 비친
멀끔한 직장인들이 공원에 가득하네

꿈 같은 미래가 코앞이야
이 도시엔 니가 원하는 모든 게 다 있어
폼나는 쇼핑몰, 최고급 골프 코스
이 모든 중심에 현대미술 허브가 있지

여기는 글로벌 투자가 넘쳐나는
프리 이코노믹 존

아무것도 없던 진흙 땅 위에 세워진
'더샵 퍼스트 월드'가 하늘을 찌르고
'컴팩스마트시티', '투모로우 시티'옆에
'인터내셔널 비즈니스 스퀘어'가 있어

이른바 지속 가능한 친환경 도시
여기선 모든 게 감시되고 통제되고 있지
모범 시민을 위한 모범 타운
송도는 이 완벽한 계획에 들어 맞는 도시일걸

감시 칩을 단 RFID 쓰레기통이 너를 쫓아도
다 너희를 위한 거야

LEED 인증이 붙은 공간들 사이에
최신 기술로 연결된 드림허브
웅장한 아이디어들은 아직도 공사 중
자투리 땅 위에서 가꿔가는 불법 텃밭

사람들은 집에서 물을 가져와
깡통지게에 지고 와서 이 정원에 물을 주지
CCTV의 묵인 아래
실 계약자가 찾아와 땅을 채갈 때까지

Yeah, 모든 권리 주장해…
Oh-wow 선진 자본가들!
Yeah, 모든걸 가져가

법망이 그들을 막을 수 없어
음흉한 자들 모든 룰을 다 꿰고 있으니
그들은 정부들을 가지고 놀아
세금도 안 낼 거고 규제 지옥은 상대하지 않으니까

이 도시는 건설된 상품들이야
거래하고 착취하고 품절시킬
영원한 불멸의 성장 패러다임 위에 지어질 상품
텃밭 주인들은 다 아는 사이비 교리!

가사 : Winkler/Köperl

한역 : Tiffany Yeon Chae

In the beginning1was the video2
In which the vision3 already came true4
White collar workforce roams the parks5
Mirrored by high rises in a stunning HD fly-through6

Now, future is at a stone´s throw7
The place that provides all you can need and more8
Posh malls9, a world class golf court10
And a contemporary art11 hub at its core

Where global investment shall flourish12
In the Free Economical Zone13

On former swampland14, built from scratch15
The '#1st World Towers'16 scrape the air
'Compact Smart-'17 and 'Tomorrow City'18
´round 'International Business Square'19

Allegedly, green and sustainable20
Smart and controlled21 is every slot
A model town22 for modelled citizens23
Songdo seems to be the pattern of the perfect plot24

There RFID trash-cans25 trace you
Just to make sure it´s all secure26

Now, inbetween LEED-labelled27 premises
And wired dreamhubs28 from the cutting edge
Where big ideas haven´t materialized yet,29 one finds a
Hidden and illegal sort of reclaim-the-soil veggie patch30

And there are people31 carrying water from their homes
In canisters, on their backs, to spill the plants
Under surveillance cameras32 and connivance
Until the contractors come to grab for these lands!33

Yeah, they claim it all.... Oh-WOW those global developers34
Yeah, they´ll take it all

And the law never will touch them35
And they´re so sly ´cause they know so well
They´re playing governments off against each other36
They´re neither paying tax37 nor do they deal with
any other spawn out of the regulations-hell38

Their cities are constructed commodities39
To be traded and squeezed and sold out40
Built on the paradigm of everlasting and eternal growth41
On that dogma - ya know - that all gardeners doubt!42


words : Winkler/Köperl


Thanks to Incheon Art Platform and Mr. Khan Lee

1Jack Lyne, "First U.S.-S. Korean Real Estate JV: Gale Co. Tapped as JV Partner in $12.5B Korean 'Intelligent City’", Site Selection, April 2002
http://www.siteselection.com/ssinsider/snapshot/sf020415.htm
Incheon Stakes Its Claim as Intelligent City, Site Selection, July 2002
http://www.siteselection.com/issues/2002/jul/p442/

2 "New Songdo City", Videoanimation by Gale International, 2004
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2uzo-xzta0

3 Jonathan Torpe, "Songdo InternaZone Business District - Future City Version 1.0", 30.11.2011, SPRIE_Innovation_Beyond_Boundaries_Jonathan_Thorpe_June_30,_2011 http://fsi.stanford.edu/events/innovation_beyond_boundaries_partnerships_for_advancing_smart_green_living/
Official website Incheon Free Economic Zone IFEZ
http://www.ifez.go.kr/jsp/eng/about/about2.jsp

4 "Songdo, DMC: sequence is of the essence", 30.04.2013
http://seoulvillage.blogspot.kr/2013_04_01_archive.html#.UlykOYXthcw

Jonathan Torpe, "Songdo InternaZone Business District - Future City Version 1.0", 30.11.2011, SPRIE_Innovation_Beyond_Boundaries_Jonathan_Thorpe_June_30,_2011 http://fsi.stanford.edu/events/innovation_beyond_boundaries_partnerships_for_advancing_smart_green_living/

5 "Songdo - Central Park", New Songdo International City Development, LCC, Gale International, KPF, POSCO E&C 2009
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vR5TG1tXIpE

"Songdo Vision", Gale International, KPF, POSCO E&C 2008
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVtvlQ4Jzbw

6 "Songdo Vision", Gale International, KPF, POSCO E&C 2008
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVtvlQ4Jzbw

7 Official Site of Korea Tourism Organisation
http://english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SI/SI_EN_3_6.jsp?cid=1718482

Cisco´s Technology News Site
http://newsroom.cisco.com/songdo

"Songdo in South Korea leading charge to become city of the future", Metro, 09.01.2012
http://metro.co.uk/2012/01/09/songdo-in-south-korea-leading-charge-to-become-city-of-the-future-279407/
Jonathan Torpe, "Songdo InternaZone Business District - Future City Version 1.0", 30.11.2011, SPRIE_Innovation_Beyond_Boundaries_Jonathan_Thorpe_June_30,_2011 http://fsi.stanford.edu/events/innovation_beyond_boundaries_partnerships_for_advancing_smart_green_living/

8 Official Website Free Economic Zones Korea
http://www.fez.go.kr/en/why-invest-in-korea.jsp

Official website of Songdo International Business District by Gale Int.
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/why-songdo/global-business-hub.aspx

9 Official website of Songdo International Business District by Gale Int.
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/the-city/shopping.aspx
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/the-city/shopping/lotte-shopping-town.aspx

BKBC Architects, Songdo City Retail Centre
http://www.bkbcarch.com/port_songdo.htm

Baum Architects
http://www.baum.co.kr/?post_type=project&p=5187
Studio Daniel Libeskind
http://www.archicentral.com/riverstone-incheon-south-korea-daniel-libeskind-12425/
http://seantellis.com/project/riverstone-incheon-south-korea/
http://www10.aeccafe.com/blogs/arch-showcase/2011/08/25/riverstone-in-incheon-south-korea-by-
baum-architects/
http://www.designboom.com/architecture/riverstone-by-daniel-libeskind/

10 Jack Nicklaus Golf Club on official website of Songdo IBD
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/the-city/lifestyle/jack-nicklaus-golf-club-korea.aspx
Official website of Jack Nicklaus Golf Club
http://www.jacknicklausgolfclubkorea.com
송도 잭니클라우스 골프CC, 10.03.2013
http://blog.daum.net/_blog/BlogTypeView.do?blogid=08trp&articleno=15648981

11 Tri Bowl on official website of IFEZ
http://www.ifez.go.kr/jsp/eng/about/about5_3.jsp
Songdo IBD Arts Centre
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/the-city/lifestyle/culture.aspx
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/the-city/lifestyle/culture/ifez-songdo-arts-center.aspx
iarc Architects (Tri Bowl)
http://iarc.net/project/?83&lang=en
dmp designcamp moonpark (IFEZ Arts Centre)
http://www.dmppartners.com, http://www.ar-chiasmus.cn/project_14.html

12 Official website, Korea Free Economic Zones, FEZ
http://www.fez.go.kr/en/greetings.jsp
Official website, Incheon Free Economic Zone IFEZ
http://www.ifez.go.kr/jsp/eng/invest/invest1.jsp
"Sing a song of $40 billion", The Economist, 22.07.2010
http://www.economist.com/blogs/banyan/2010/07/city-building_south_korea
"Foreign businesses not following through on plans to invest in FEZs", The Hankyoreh, 30.07.2006
http://english.hani.co.kr/popups/print.hani?ksn=145263
Kim Young-hwan, "1.5 percent sales rate for Songdo apartments - The failed redevelopment project is expected to have a negative impact on local real estate", The Hankyoreh, 22.11.2011
http://english.hani.co.kr/popups/print.hani?ksn=506567
Chun Sung-woo, "FEZs totter with meager foreign investment", The Korea Herald, 12.06.2012
http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20120612001267
Seo Jee-yeon, "IFEZ takes shape as international business city", The Korea Herald, 26.06.2012
http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20130626000919
emilyfwang@arirang.co.kr, "Songdo Expected to Attract More Foreign Investment", arirang News, 31.10.2012
http://www.arirang.co.kr/News/News_View.asp?nseq=139475&category=2
Jung Ki-Hwan, Sarah Kim, "Songdo pulling in more investment", Korea Joongang Daily, 12.06.2013
http://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/news/article/article.aspx?aid=2972965

13 Official English website of the Incheon Free Economic Zone
http://www.ifez.go.kr/jsp/eng/front.jsp
Official Korean website of the Incheon Free Economic Zone
http://www.ifez.go.kr/front.do
Official website of the Korea Free Economic Zones
http://www.fez.go.kr

14 North Dakota Geographic Information Systems
https://ndgishub.maps.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?useExisting=1
Randolph T. Hester, "Letter to Lee administration: Save the Songdo Tidal Flat" The Hankyoreh, 28.08.2009
http://english.hani.co.kr/popups/print.hani?ksn=373552

15 Dan Frommer, "Sim City: Inside South Korea’s $35 Billion Plan to Build a City from Scratch", 31.07.2012
http://readwrite.com/2012/07/31/sim-city-inside-south-koreas-35-billion-plan-to-build-a-city-from-scratch
Jonathan Thorpe, "Songdo IBD: A city built from scratch", 30.09.2013
http://www.globalairportcities.com/page.cfm/action=library/libID=1/libEntryID=1114/listID=4
Greg Lindsay, "Cisco’s Big Bet on New Songdo: Creating Cities From Scratch", Fast Company Magazine, 02.2010
http://www.fastcompany.com/1514547/ciscos-big-bet-new-songdo-creating-cities-scratch
Christoph Steiner, "Scratch Builders", Forbes, 21.12.2007
http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2008/0107/106.html
Sarah Kim, "Built-from-scratch Songdo starts coming to life", Korea Joongang Daily, 18.12.2012
http://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/news/article/article.aspx?aid=2964114
Jonathan Torpe, "Songdo InternaZone Business District - Future City Version 1.0", 30.11.2011, SPRIE_Innovation_Beyond_Boundaries_Jonathan_Thorpe_June_30,_2011 http://fsi.stanford.edu/events/innovation_beyond_boundaries_partnerships_for_advancing_smart_green_living/

16 # 1st World Towers on official website of Songdo IBD
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/the-city/living/first-world.aspx
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/gallery/image-gallery.aspx/d=796/title=First_World

17 Compact Smart City on official website of IFEZ
http://www.ifez.go.kr/jsp/eng/about/about5_2.jsp
Compact Smart City official website
http://www.compactsmartcity.com/

18 Tomorrow City on official website of IFEZ
http://www.ifez.go.kr/jsp/eng/about/about5.jsp
Tomorrow City official website
http://www.tomorrowcity.or.kr
Songdo Tomorrow City, 13.03.2008
http://blog.naver.com/PostView.nhn?blogId=jinsub0707&logNo=140049317789&viewDate=&currentPage=1&listtype=0

19 International Business Square on official website of Songdo IBD
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/the-city/working/international-business-square.aspx
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/gallery/image-gallery.aspx/d=781/title=International_Business_Square

20 Yekang Ko, Derek K. Schubert and Randolph T. Hester, "A Conflict of Greens: Green Development Versus Habitat Preservation – The Case of Incheon, South Korea", Environment - Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 05.2011 http://www.environmentmagazine.org/Archives/Back%20Issues/2011/May-June%202011/conflict-of-greens-full.html
"Songdo: betting on the green instant-city", Danish Architecture Centre, 26.11.2012
http://www.dac.dk/en/dac-cities/sustainable-cities/all-cases/master-plan/songdo-betting-on-the-green-instant-city/
Official website of Songdo IBD
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/why-songdo/sustainable-city.aspx
Official website of IFEZ
http://www.ifez.go.kr/jsp/eng/business/business6.jsp
Jonathan Torpe, "Songdo InternaZone Business District - Future City Version 1.0", 30.11.2011, SPRIE_Innovation_Beyond_Boundaries_Jonathan_Thorpe_June_30,_2011 http://fsi.stanford.edu/events/innovation_beyond_boundaries_partnerships_for_advancing_smart_green_living/

21 "How Cities Save Money and Improve Surveillance with Open Platform IP Video Surveillance", CSC Communications Supply Corporation, 25.09.2010
http://www.gocsc.com/UserFiles/File/Milestone/MilestoneCitySurveillance.pdf
Pamela Licalzi O´Connell, "Korea’s High-Tech Utopia, Where Everything Is Observed", The New York Times, 05.10.2005 http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/05/technology/techspecial/05oconnell.html?_r=0&ei=5088&en=4a368c49e8f30bd2&ex=1286164800&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1381847195-NQZmLdDSIAgWyGSwIG8jkg
Richard Sennett, "No one likes a city that’s too smart", The Guardian, 04.12.2012
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/dec/04/smart-city-rio-songdo-masdar
Grant J. Kidney, "World’s First 'Smart City’ To Be Completed By 2015: 'Songdo’ The Orwellian Control Grid", Infowars, 29.07.2012
http://www.infowars.com/worlds-first-smart-city-to-be-completed-by-2015-songdo-the-orwellian-control-grid/
Daniel Taylor, "Ubiquitous Computing May Build Ultimate Surveillance Society", Infowars, 27.05.2008
http://www.infowars.com/orwellian-ubiquitous-computing-may-build-ultimate-surveillance-society/
Daniel Taylor, ""Planned-opolis" Cities Already Being Tested in South Korea", Infowars, 06.01.2011
http://www.infowars.com/planned-opolis-cities-already-being-tested-in-south-korea/
"The Smart City of the future will bring big data to a new level", 18.06.2013
http://www.bigdata-startups.com/smart-city-future-bring-big-data-level/
Daniel Taylor, "EU Set to Move 'Internet of Things’ Closer to Reality", 02.11.2008
http://infolution.wordpress.com/tag/new-songdo-city/

22 Rachel Keeton, "New Songdo City - City in a Box", Tegenlicht, 11.01.2013
http://tegenlicht.vpro.nl/nieuws/inti/New-Songdo.html
John Boudreau, "Cisco helps build prototype for instant cities", San Jose Mercury News, 06.01.2010
http://www.mercurynews.com/news/ci_15205810?nclick_check=1
"Songdo, Korea A Model City For Honduras?", Honduras Culture and Politics, 11.02.2011
http://hondurasculturepolitics.blogspot.kr/2011/02/songdo-korea-model-city-for-honduras.html
"Gale Changsha Announcement", Compass Advisers Group, LLC,05.02.2009
http://www.ca-llp.com/news/gale-changsha-announcement
Gale International, Meixi Lake District, Changsha, China
http://www.galeintl.com/projects/meixi-lake/
KPF - Kohn, Peddersen, FoxAssociates, Meixi Lake District, Changsha, China
http://www.kpf.com/project.asp?ID=135
Dr Glen Kuecker, "Building the Bridge to the Future: New Songdo City from a Critical Urbanism Perspective.", in: New Songdo City and South Korea’s Green Economy: An Uncertain Future, conference, 21.05.2013
http://londonkoreanlinks.net/2013/05/21/new-songdo-city-and-south-koreas-green-economy-an-uncertain-future/

23 "A Brand New City.  Built From The Ground Up. Built Around People.", 27.10.2006
http://web.archive.org/web/20061027031133/http://www.songdo.com/default.aspx
Jonathan Torpe, "Songdo InternaZone Business District - Future City Version 1.0", 30.11.2011, SPRIE_Innovation_Beyond_Boundaries_Jonathan_Thorpe_June_30,_2011, http://fsi.stanford.edu/events/innovation_beyond_boundaries_partnerships_for_advancing_smart_green_living/
Songdo Global University
http://www.sgu.or.kr/sgu/eng/main.htm

24 "Songdo IBD – A Masterplan Inspired by the World", Archivenue, 16.06.2010
http://www.archivenue.com/songdo-ibd-a-masterplan-inspired-by-the-world/
Songdo City - The World´s First Wireless City
http://tofugalaxy.com/songdo-city/
Thorpe_June_30,_2011
http://fsi.stanford.edu/events/innovation_beyond_boundaries_partnerships_for_advancing_smart_green_living/
Songdo Global University
http://www.sgu.or.kr/sgu/eng/main.htm

25 Jessica Seoyoung Choi, "RFID garbage bins save billions of won", The Korea Times, 17.05.2012
http://www.korea.net/NewsFocus/Policies/view?articleId=100424
Don Southerton, "Songdo IBD: Green and Hi-tech", Songdo to Belmar New Urbanism City Talk, 19.09.2009
http://www.songdoibdcitytalk.com/blog/?p=475
Dan Frommer, "Cities as Gadgets: 8 Features This Brand-New City Has That Yours Doesn’t", readwrite, 01.08.2012
http://readwrite.com/2012/08/01/cities-as-gadgets-8-features-this-brand-new-city-has-that-yours-doesnt#awesm=~ojVZtykP4KMqfT
Kun-Young Ahn: RFID/USN in Korea, September 2006, PDF
https://docs.zigbee.org/zigbee-docs/dcn/06-4491.pdf

26 An overview of New Songdo City - Safety
http://k-mice.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/convention/advertisement/Songdo.jsp?img_visual=img_visual_c.jpg
Frost & Sullivan, "Growth Opportunities in Safe Cities", 01.02.2010
http://de.slideshare.net/FrostandSullivan/growth-opportunities-in-safe-cities

27 Promoting LEED Certification and Green Building Technologies, LEED Construction Company.com
http://www.leed.net/
Official website of Songdo IBD
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/why-songdo/sustainable-city.aspx
"Songdo IBD development in South Korea achieves LEED certification", 28.06.2012
http://www.designbuild-network.com/news/newssongdo-ibd-development-in-south-korea-achieves-leed-certification
"Korea’s Songdo International Business District - One of Asia’s Largest Green Developments - Surpasses Milestone of 13 Million Square Feet of LEED Certified Space", Press release by Songdo IBD, 27.06.2012
http://www.songdo.com/songdo-international-business-district/news/press-releases.aspx/d=386/title=Koreas_Songdo_International_Business_District__One_of_Asias_Largest_Green_Developments__Surpasses_Milestone_of_13_Million_Square_Feet_of_LEED_Certified_Space
"New Songdo in Korea Named as 'Green Urbanism’ Pilot Project"
http://www.greenprogress.com/green_building_article.php?id=1205

28 "Meet a Ubiquitous City! Songdo, South Korea", 11.01.2012
http://www.advancedtechnologykorea.com/9801/
Lucy Williamson, "Tomorrow’s cities: Just how smart is Songdo?", BBC News, 02.09.2013
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-23757738
Larry Dignan, "Cisco’s grand telepresence experiment in Songdo, South Korea", 03.06.2010
http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/ciscos-grand-telepresence-experiment-in-songdo-south-korea/35336
Don Southerton, "Songdo IBD and CISCO Smart & Connected", BBC World Service Click, 18.04.2013
http://bridgingculturekorea.blogspot.kr/2013/04/bbc-world-service-click-songdo-ibd-and.html
Jong Sung Hwang, "Smart City and Smart Government : Strategy, Model, and Cases of Korea", 09.07.2013
http://de.slideshare.net/hjs0199/smart-city-and-smart-government-strategy-model-and-cases-of-korea
"Three Faces of the City 2.0", Paris Tech Review, 09.05.2012
http://www.paristechreview.com/2012/05/09/the-three-faces-of-the-city-2-0/
"What is U-City", U-City Standardisation Forum, 12.2006
http://ustandard.ucta.or.kr/eng/overview_01.asp
Nicos Komninos, "U-City: New Trends of Urban Planning in Korea", URENIO - Urban and Regional Innovation Research, 26.09.2010
http://www.urenio.org/2010/09/26/u-city-new-trends-of-urban-planning-in-korea/
"Meet a Ubiquitous City! Songdo, South Korea", 11.01.2012
http://www.advancedtechnologykorea.com/9801/

29 "Dystopian photographs of Songdo by Manuel Alvarez Diestro", 07.09.2013
http://www.designboom.com/art/dystopian-photographs-of-songdo-by-manuel-alvarez-diestro/
"Incheon Songdo International Business District metro station", 15.05.2011
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Incheon_Songdo_International_Business_District_metro_station.JPG
"Connectivity, Continuity and Consistence", Seoul Village Blog, 18.06.2012, http://seoulvillage.blogspot.kr/2013_06_01_archive.html#.UmJ_pYXthcx

30 "First days in Songdo", 25.04.2013
http://loewensteinmuraljournal.blogspot.kr/2013/04/first-days-in-songdo.html
"# The Harbour View, Songdo South Korea", Gale International official website
http://www.galeintl.com/projects/the-harbor-view-songdo-south-korea/#!lightbox[auto_group1]/4/

31 John Boudreau, "Cisco helps build prototype for instant cities", San Jose Mercury News, 06.01.2010
http://www.mercurynews.com/news/ci_15205810?nclick_check=1
"Tech giant Cisco goes into the business of building instant cities in Korea", 06.02.2010
http://io9.com/5553706/tech-giant-cisco-goes-into-the-business-of-building-instant-cities-in-korea
"Urban Farming", 27.10.2012
http://paulaandbrianskoreanblog.wordpress.com/

32 "The Cisco Master Plan", Jean-Louis Massaut interviewed by Arjen Oosterman, Brendan Cormier and Edwin Hans, 01.2013
http://cargocollective.com/brendancormier/interview-jean-Louis-Massaut
"How Cities Save Money and Improve Surveillance with Open Platform IP Video Surveillance", CSC Communications Supply Corporation, 25.09.2010, http://www.gocsc.com/UserFiles/File/Milestone/MilestoneCitySurveillance.pdf
http://www.gocsc.com/UserFiles/File/Milestone/MilestoneCitySurveillance.pdf
"Meet a Ubiquitous City! Songdo, South Korea", 11.01.2012
http://www.advancedtechnologykorea.com/9801/

33 Anchor Group Services, advertisement "traveller and squatter eviction"
http://www.anchorgroupservices.co.uk/reactive-response.php?traveller-and-squatter-eviction&slide-3
Dream Hub, CNEWS, 02.05.2012
http://www.cnews.co.kr/uhtml/read.jsp?idxno=201205021550298030207
"6 killed in clash between police and protesters in Yongsan", The Hankyoreh, 21.01.2009
http://english.hani.co.kr/popups/print.hani?ksn=334510
"Prayer in Yongsan", No Base Stories of Korea, 22.11.2009
http://nobasestorieskorea.blogspot.kr/2009/11/prayer-in-yongsan.html
Jaeyeon Woo, "Seoul Property Megaproject A Bad Dream", The Wall Street Journal, 15.03.2013
http://blogs.wsj.com/korearealtime/2013/03/15/seoul-property-megaproject-a-bad-dream/?mg=blogs-wsj&url=http%253A%252F%252Fblogs.wsj.com%252Fkorearealtime%252F2013%252F03%252F15%252Fseoul-propert
Kang Hyun-kyung, "KEPCO, Miryang residents clash", The Korea Times, 20.05.2013
http://koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2013/05/113_136023.html
Kang Jin-kyu, "Protests over high-voltage pylons get intense", Korea Joongang Daily, 21.05.2013,
http://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/news/article/article.aspx?aid=2971877
Suk Gee-hyun, "KEPCO forges ahead with Miryang project despite protests", The Korea Herald, 02.10.2013,
http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20131002000684

34 POSCO: http://www.posco.com
Gale International: http://www.galeintl.com
CISCO: http://www.cisco.com
Morgan Stanley: http://www.morganstanley.com
Developers International Project Finance
http://www.developersinternational.com/
"Apply your maths and business know-how in time-pressured and competitive team games." Stock Market Challenge, stockmarketchallenge.co.uk
"Global Investor" on Vimeo:
http://vimeo.com/65376340

35 "Deutsche Bank Ackermann’s Settlement In Mannesmann Trial Raises Governance Concerns", The Deal Sleuth, 26.12.2006
http://thedealsleuth.wordpress.com/2006/12/26/dbs-ackermanns-settlement-in-mannesmann-trial-raises-governance-concerns/
Patrick Richter, "The Mannesmann trial: German business and union bureaucracy in the dock", World Socialist Web Site, 11.03.2004
https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2004/03/mann-m11.html
"The Mannesmann trial: V for victory", 30.11.2006
http://www.economist.com/node/8361251

36 European Commission, "Harmful Tax Competition", 26.09.2013
http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/taxation/company_tax/harmful_tax_practices/
Heather Stewart, "Wealth doesn’t trickle down – it just floods offshore, research reveals", The Guardian, 21.07.2012
http://www.theguardian.com/business/2012/jul/21/offshore-wealth-global-economy-tax-havens
Global Bhashin, "Global Tax Havens", 09.09.2013
http://globalbhasin.blogspot.kr/2013/09/global-tax-havens.html
"Offshore-Leaks - Deutsche Bank gerät ins Zwielicht", Der Versicherungsbote, 05.04.2013
http://www.versicherungsbote.de/id/88828/Offshore-Leaks---Deutsche-Bank-geraet-ins-Zwielicht/?PHPSESSID=7f10e3463235123ed575d33e034f14d2
Chana Joffe-Walt, "We Set Up An Offshore Company In A Tax Haven", planet money, 27.07.2012
http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2012/07/27/157421340/how-to-set-up-an-offshore-company

37 Free Economic Zone Korea
http://www.fez.go.kr, http://www.fez.go.kr/en/investment-incentives-tax-benefits.jsp, http://www.fez.go.kr/en/fez-business-environment-support.jsp
Incheon Free Economic Zone
http://www.ifez.go.kr/jsp/eng/front.jsp

38 Seo Jee-yeon, "Ministry drives deregulation to attract service firms", The Korea Herald, 22.05.2013
http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20130522000909
Molly Ivins, "Deregulation Fails All Over Again", The Texas Observer, 14.09.2001
http://www.texasobserver.org/423-molly-ivins-deregulation-fails-all-over-again/
Leo Panitch and Martijn Konings, "Myths of neoliberal deregulation", New Left Review, 06/2009
http://newleftreview.org/II/57/leo-panitch-martijn-konings-myths-of-neoliberal-deregulation
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Laws: Land
http://english.molit.go.kr/USR/BORD0201/m_33276/LST.jsp?id=eng_law&cate=public
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Laws: Construction, Housing
http://english.molit.go.kr/USR/BORD0201/m_33276/LST.jsp?id=eng_law&cate=eng_law_02

39 Michelle Provoost, "Why Build a New Town?", Volume #34: City in a Box, 04.03.2013
http://volumeproject.org/2013/03/why-build-a-new-town/
Kearns, G.;Philo, C., "Selling places: the city as cultural capital, past and present", Pergamon Press, 1993, http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19941800952.html;jsessionid=D0B689FF5696420CDBDF7BD755EF76D7
Stella ˇCapek and John I. Gilderbloom, "Community versus Commodity", State University of New York Press, 1992
http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=Kx8-Lz5K1YYC&printsec=frontcover&hl=de#v=onepage&q&f=false

40 Erik Swyngedouw, Frank Moulaert, Arantxa Rodriguez, "Neoliberal Urbanisation in Europe: Large-Scale Urban Development Projects and the New Urban Policy", Antipode Volume 34, 2002, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8330.00254/abstract
Scott Cummings, "Business Elites and Urban Development", SUNY Press, 07.04.1988 http://books.google.co.kr/books?id=KxR1xBWl4Z4C&dq=business+elites+and+urban+development&lr=&hl=de&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Michael A. Pagano and Ann O’M. Bowman. "Cityscapes and Capital-The Politics of Urban Development", Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6146836
Rachel Weber, "Extracting Value from the City: Neoliberalism and Urban Redevelopment", Antipode Volume 34, 2002
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8330.00253/abstract

41 Rick Szostak, "The Causes of Economic Growth: Investment, Trade, Technology, Geography", Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2009
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-92282-7_6
Salim Rashid, "Economic Policy for Growth - Economic Development is Human Development", Springer US, 2000
http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4615-4537-8/page/1
"Green growth in action: Korea", OECD, 2012
http://www.oecd.org/korea/greengrowthinactionkorea.htm
"Who Killed Economic Growth?"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQqDS9wGsxQ
Richard Heinberg, "The End of Growth - The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality", New Society Publishers, 2011
http://richardheinberg.com/bookshelf/the-end-of-growth-book
Hans-Peter Martin, Harald Schumann, "Die Globalisierungsfalle",rowohlt 1998
http://www.rowohlt.de/buch/Harald_Schumann_Die_Globalisierungsfalle.5784.html

42 The Life Cycle of a Plant
http://theseedsite.co.uk/lifecycle.html
http://www.exploringnature.org/db/detail.php?dbID=45&detID=2695